Next meeting: 14th December 2016/ Room 2.46 / 3-5pm
Christine de Pizan (c. 1364-1430?), poet and biographer of King Charles V, was the first professional female author of France. Widowed before the age of 25, responsible for several dependants, far from her native Venice, and beset by multiple lawsuits, she appears to have made a living through book production and the copying of manuscripts before beginning to write her own poetry. Her Epistre au dieu d’Amours (Letter of the God of Love), written in 1399, is a defence of women which criticises amongst other texts the influential thirteenth-century allegorical dream vision, Le Roman de la Rose, in which the Lover pursues and finally achieves his object of desire, the Rose. In the Epistre she mocks the ingenuity the Roman presents as necessary to win the Rose, arguing that the difficulty involved in seduction disproves the antifeminist case against women:
And Jean de Meun’s The Romance of the Rose,
Oh what a long affair! How difficult!
The erudition clear and murky both
That he put there, with those great escapades!
So many efforts made and ruses found
To trick a virgin — that, and nothing more!
And that’s the aim of it, through fraud and schemes!
A great assault for such a feeble place?
(Christine de Pizan, Epistre au dieu d’Amours, trans. by Thelma S. Fenster, ll. 389-97)
The Querelle de la Rose, or Debate of the Rose, began during the early years of the fifteenth century and was seemingly initiated in person rather than sparked by the Epistre. Although the debate encompasses other texts, such as a sermon and treatise against Le Roman de la Rose by Jean Gerson, Chancellor of the University of Paris, at its core are the epistles exchanged between Christine de Pizan and the three royal secretaries, Jean de Montreuil and Gontier and Pierre Col. Christine attacked Jean de Meun’s portion of the Roman for its antifeminism and what she understood to be its encouragement of immorality. More pertinently, she challenged the educated male admirers of the text. Thelma S. Fenster and Mary Carpenter Erler write that Christine’s intervention was perceived as an intrusion into a scholarly, masculine world:
Christine’s rebuke of Meun stirred their proprietary feelings, along with some irritation at her woman’s audacity. She was a feminine interloper in an exclusively masculine discourse, one that flourished between the secretaries and the authors they admired, on the one hand, and among the members of their own group, on the other. The literary practice they represented had never hesitated to write about women, though it rarely did so with the expectation that women themselves might be its respondents. Now the Epistre and the Dit would invite their public, one that Christine well knew included other women, to scrutinize the Roman, and to do so in a critical way.
(Fenster and Erler, Poems of Cupid, God of Love, p. 5)
1399: Christine writes the letter to Cupid or Epistre au dieu d’Amours. The poem draws attention to the antifeminism of Jean de Meun’s continuation of Le Roman de la Rose, exposing to ridicule its illogical and inconsistent portrayal of women.
June/July 1401: Christine attacks Jean de Montreuil’s commentary on Jean de Meun’s continuation [epistle 4]. Montreuil’s commentary on Le Roman de la Rose has not survived.
September 1401: Gontier Col, secretary to the king, writes to Christine, requesting that she send him a copy of her letter to Jean de Montreuil [epistle 3].
September 1401: Christine responds with the requested letter [epistle 2 sets out her account; epistle 4 is the document requested].
September 1401: Gontier Col responds, insisting that Christine retract her views [epistle 5].
September 1401: Christine responds, restating her position that Le Roman de la Rose is an immoral text which endangers its readers [epistle 6].
October 1401: Christine writes to Pierre Col, brother of Gontier and Canon of Paris and Tournai [epistle 7].
February 1402: Christine sends the collected correspondence to Isabeau of Bavaria, Queen of France, asking for the Queen’s approval and support for her efforts to defend women from clerical antifeminism [epistle 1].
Further epistles were exchanged after Christine sought the Queen’s support. Several of these can be found in McWebb’s anthology.
Topics for discussion:
- The (dis)continuities between the two excerpts from Le Roman de la Rose. The first passage, describing the beginning of the dream and Amant’s first sighting of the Rose, was written by Guillaume de Lorris; the second, the ‘plucking’ of the Rose, is taken from Jean de Meun’s continuation, composed nearly half a century later.
- The balance between condemning a text’s presentation of women and condemning its moral status. To what extent does Christine’s argument veer towards promoting censorship of texts on the basis of immorality? How is her audience reflected in the tone and detail of her letters?
- Humour in the Epistre au dieu d’Amours
- Modes of argument
- Modes of address between the correspondents
Further reading (French):